References

  1. Perrault, R. et al. Artificial Intelligence Index – 2019 annual report. (2019).
  2. Sumpter, D. Outnumbered. From Facebook and Google to Fake News and Filter-bubbles – The Algorithms That Control Our Lives. (Bloomsbury Sigma, 2018).
  3. AlgorithmWatch. Automating Society: Taking Stock of Automated Decision-Making in the EU. (2019).
  4. Carey, D. & Smith, M. How companies are using simulations, competitions, and analytics to hire. Harv. Bus. Rev. (2016).
  5. Electronic Privacy Information Center. Algorithms in the Criminal Justice System: Risk Assessment Tools https://epic.org/algorithmic-transparency/crim-justice/.
  6. Agrawal, A., Gans, J. & Goldfarb, A. Prediction machines: the simple economics of artificial intelligence. (Harvard Business Press, 2018).
  7. Bishop, C. M. Pattern recognition and machine learning. (2006).
  8. O’Neil, C. Weapons of Math Destruction: How big data increases inequality and threatens democracy. (New York: Crown, 2016).
  9. Stuart, R. & Peter, N. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. (Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2020).
  10. de Sousa, W. G., de Melo, E. R. P., Bermejo, P. H. D. S., Farias, R. A. S. & Gomes, A. O. How and where is artificial intelligence in the public sector going? A literature review and research agenda. Gov. Inf. Q. 36, 101392 (2019).
  11. Kuziemski, M. & Misuraca, G. AI governance in the public sector: Three tales from the frontiers of automated decision-making in democratic settings. Telecommun. Policy 44, 101976 (2020).
  12. Misuraca, G. & Van Noordt, C. AI Watch – Artificial Intelligence in public services. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/ai-watch-artificial-intelligence-public-services (2020).
  13. Dwivedi, Y. K. et al. Artificial Intelligence (AI): Multidisciplinary perspectives on emerging challenges, opportunities, and agenda for research, practice and policy. Int. J. Inf. Manag. 101994 (2019).
  14. Sun, T. Q. & Medaglia, R. Mapping the challenges of Artificial Intelligence in the public sector: Evidence from public healthcare. Gov. Inf. Q. 36, 368–383 (2019).
  15. Rothstein, B. The quality of government: Corruption, social trust, and inequality in international perspective. (University of Chicago Press, 2011).
  16. Strimling, P., Jebari, K. & Vartanova, I. Global trends in the public’s AI interest.
  17. Dressel, J. & Farid, H. The accuracy, fairness, and limits of predicting recidivism. Sci. Adv. 4, eaao5580 (2018).
  18. Bursell, M. Perceptions of discrimination against Muslims. A study of formal complaints against public institutions in Sweden. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 0, 1–18 (2018).
  19. Marcus, G. & Davis, E. Rebooting AI: Building Artificial Intelligence We Can Trust. (Pantheon, 2019).
  20. Domingos, P. A few useful things to know about machine learning. Commun. ACM 55, 78–87 (2012).
  21. Hutson, M. Has artificial intelligence become alchemy? (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2018).
  22. Christiano, T. The constitution of equality: Democratic authority and its limits. (Oxford University Press, 2008).
  23. Rawls, J. A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Harvard University Press, 1971).